Background: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Worldwide, a third of ischemic heart disease is due to abnormal cholesterol levels and it is the most common cause of cardiovascular deaths in Colombia. In Colombia, no representative, large-scale study has assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia. The aim of the present analysis was to identify the magnitude of the problem in Colombia, a middle-income-country with large regional, geographic, and socio-economical differences. Material and methods: The sample comprised 6628 individuals aged 35 to 70 years (mean age 50.7 years, 64.1% women) residing in the four Colombian regions. Results: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 87.7% and was substantially higher among participants older than 50 years, male, rural residents, and those with a lower level of education (66.8%), and with a lower income (66.4%). High non HDL-c was the most common abnormality (75.3%). The values of total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol were higher in areas with the lowest health needs index than in the areas with intermediate and highest health need index, the isolated HDL-c value was much lower. Conclusion: Colombia has a high prevalence of abnormalities of the lipid profile. The causes of the high rates of dyslipidemia were not well define in this study, but were more common in rural and poorer regions and among those with lower socio-economical status. Strategies to tackle the adverse lipid profile to reduce CVD are needed in Colombia, particularly in rural areas and among the areas with the higher health need index.