Background: Non-infectious retinal disease, even in the HAART era, continues to be one of the most common diagnoses in patients with HIV, with prevalences of up to 27% of cases. This study aims to characterize the association between demographic variables and their role. as a risk factor for the development of non-opportunistic non-infectious retinal disease in patients with HIV/AIDS Methods: An integrative review of the literature was carried out according to Arksey O'Malley's approach, based on the PICO methodology and following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) recommendations; An exhaustive search was carried out in databases of articles that were filtered using established criteria, with their extraction and analysis carried out qualitatively. Results: Ocular manifestations from any cause develop from 35 years of age in patients with HIV/AIDS, with the highest risk for age-related macular degeneration over the fourth decade of life and for the development of neuroretinal disorder on the fifth decade of life; some studies report a slight tendency to diagnose macular degeneration in women and those who acquired AIDS through sexual contact; data contrasted with increased risk for diagnosing neuroretinal disorder in homosexual men who also use intravenous drugs, possibly due to oversampling in studies; non-Hispanic whites and African Americans were the races most commonly affected by neuroretinal disease; the means between the 11.3 to 14.5 years elapsed since the HIV diagnosis were more frequently associated with cognitive impairment and both in those with high or low CD4 counts, and in patients with high or low viral loads, neuroretinal disease without Statistically significant differences. Adherence and early initiation of HAART had a modest impact on the development of neuroretinal disease. Discussion: Even in the HAART era, non-infectious neuroretinal disease and cytomegalovirus retinitis remain the most frequent ocular diagnoses, however, different studies argue an increase in age-related non-infectious retinal diseases in patients with HIV, theories that are may explain by the increase in life expectancy, the metabolic effects of HAART itself or the generalized pro-inflammatory state in this group of patients, it is essential to recognize this new diagnostic challenge in order to direct preventive efforts through the use of cost-effective sociodemographic risk predictors towards that technological tools for diagnosis and treatment can be targeted. Conclusions: HIV/AIDS patients who present at the ophthalmological consultation with the suggested sociodemographic predictors have a high risk of visual impairment due to non-infectious retinopathy, therefore prevention, diagnosis and treatment efforts directed at these diseases should be increased.
|Título traducido de la contribución||Sociodemographic predictors associated with the spectrum of non-opportunist neuroretinal disease of non-infectious etiology in patients with HIV/AIDS: a scoping review|
|Publicación||Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia|
|Estado||Aceptada/en prensa - 2021|
- Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
- Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
- Neuroretinal disorder (NRD)