Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances removal in multi-barrier advanced water purification system for indirect potable reuse

Lin Li, Laura Haak, Tatiana C. Guarin, Lydia Teel, Vijay Sundaram, Krishna R. Pagilla

Producción científica: Artículos / NotasArtículo Científicorevisión exhaustiva


The study evaluated the removal efficacy of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) across various advanced water treatment (AWT) processes in a field-scale AWT train using secondary effluent samples from a full-scale water reclamation facility (WRF). Samples collected from April to October 2020 revealed PFCAs as the dominant PFAS compounds in the WRF secondary effluent, with PFPeA having the highest average concentration and PFSAs in notably lower amounts. Temporal fluctuations in total PFAS concentrations peaked in September 2020, which may reflect the seasonality in PFAS discharges related to applications like AFFFs and pesticides. In assessing AWT processes, coagulation-flocculation-clarification-filtration system showed no notable PFAS reduction, while ozonation resulted in elevated PFBS and PFBA concentrations. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration effectively removed long-chain PFAS like PFOS and PFHxS but saw increased concentrations of short-chain PFAS post-treatment. Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration was the most effective treatment, reducing all PFSAs below the detection limits and significantly decreasing most PFCAs, though short-chain PFCAs persisted. UV treatment did not remove short-chain PFCAs such as PFBA, PFPeA, and PFHxA. The findings highlight the efficacy of AWT processes like GAC in PFAS reduction for potable reuse, but also underscore the challenge presented by short-chain PFAS, emphasizing the need for tailored treatment strategies. Practitioner Points: Secondary effluents showed higher concentrations of PFCAs compared to PFSAs. Advanced water treatment effectively removes long-chain PFAS but not short-chain. Ozonation may contribute to formation of short-chain PFAS. BAC is less effective on short-chain PFAS, requiring further GAC treatment.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículoe10990
PublicaciónWater Environment Research
EstadoPublicada - feb. 2024


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