Purpose: Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia remains a major cause of maternal death in low-income countries. Vitamin D has a very diverse biological role in cardiovascular diseases. This study will evaluate the association of vitamin D levels and relevance to pre-eclampsia. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of women recruited from the GenPE (Genetics and Pre-eclampsia) Colombian registry. This is a multicenter case-control study conducted in eight Colombian cities. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was measured using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 1013 women with pre-eclampsia and 1015 mothers without pre-eclampsia (controls). Results: Fifty-two percent of women with pre-eclampsia were vitamin D deficient. The 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower in the pre-eclampsia (mean 29.99 ng/mL; 95% CI: 29.40–30.58 ng/mL) group compared to controls (mean 33.7 ng/mL; 95% CI: 33.20–34.30 ng/mL). In the unadjusted model, maternal vitamin D deficiency, defined by maternal 25(OH)D concentration <30 ng/mL, was associated with an increased probability of suffering from pre-eclampsia (OR 2.10; 95% CI, 1.75–2.51). After adjusting for covariates, a similarly increased probability of having pre-eclampsia was observed (OR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80–2.64) among women with vitamin D deficiency, relative to controls. Conclusion: Although the results suggest that low maternal concentrations of 25(OH)D increase pre-eclampsia risk, this evidence may not be indicative of a causal association. Future studies are needed to confirm a definite causal relationship between concentrations of vitamin D and the risk of pre-eclampsia, by means of powered clinical trials.
- Case-control study
- Dose response
- Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
- Vitamin D