Systemic changes following carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats

E. Vazquez, M. Navarro, Y. Salazar, G. Crespo, G. Bruges, C. Osorio, V. Tortorici, H. Vanegas, Mercedes López

Research output: Articles / NotesScientific Articlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Objective and design: Carrageenan-induced paw edema has been described as a local and acute inflammatory process. In fact, little is known about the time course and systemic changes following a carrageenan injection. In this study, we examine the systemic changes that follow carrageenan injection in the paw. Methods: Acute inflammation was produced by subplantar injection of carrageenan in a hind paw of Sprague–Dawley rats. Saline was used in control rats. Paw volume was measured with a plethysmometer. The hot plate latency test was used to quantify antinociception. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured with a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Fibrinogen concentration was measured using the gravimetric method. Lung morphometric analysis was performed using an image processing package. Lungs and paws were also examined for tissue factor (TF) and proinflammatory cytokines expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: We found diverse systemic changes including increased levels of acute phase proteins, such as CRP and fibrinogen, and a lung inflammatory process characterized by lung edema, fibrin deposition, and leukocyte infiltration. An elevated expression of TF, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα, was observed in paw and lung tissue sections by immunohistochemical methods. Conclusion: This study provides new evidence that a local carrageenan injection induces a systemic response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-342
Number of pages10
JournalInflammation Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Carrageenan
  • Lung inflammation
  • Paw model
  • Proinflammatory cytokines
  • Tissue factor expression


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