Pathogen reduction by ozone–biological activated carbon-based advanced water reclamation for reuse

Lydia Teel, Krishna Pagilla, Vijay Sundaram, Lin Li, Tatiana Guarin, Laura Haak

Research output: Articles / NotesScientific Articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Ozone–biological activated carbon (ozone-BAC)-based technologies are emerging as an appealing option for potable reuse systems; however, uncertainty remains regarding the reduction of waterborne pathogens. Common log reduction requirements have been modeled after California Department of Drinking Water's 12–10–10 log reduction value (LRV) for enteric virus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia, respectively. The objective of this research was to investigate appropriate LRVs of pathogens that can be achieved in ozone-BAC-based treatment systems and to assess the applicability of employing drinking water pathogen guidelines for potable reuse applications. A pilot scale ozone-BAC-based treatment train was operated at two water reclamation facilities in Reno, Nevada, USA. Virus, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and bacterial indicators were monitored across individual and combined treatment processes. Pathogen barriers investigated include conventional filtration, ozonation, and ultraviolet disinfection. Based on sampling and treatment validation strategies, the three pathogen barriers can provide minimum LRVs of 13–9–9.5 for virus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium. Secondary biological treatment can provide additional pathogen LRVs with site-specific sampling. The present study addresses regulatory uncertainties associated with ozone-BAC pathogen reduction. Practitioner Points: Ozone–biological activated carbon-based advanced treatment can meet pathogen LRV requirements with a minimum of three pathogen barriers. Successfully applied drinking water pathogen reduction guidelines for potable reuse applications verified by operational criteria. Low presence of pathogens requires surrogates and indicator analyses and variety of monitoring techniques to verify pathogen log reduction.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10726
JournalWater Environment Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • log reduction values
  • ozone–biological activated carbon
  • water reclamation
  • water reuse
  • waterborne pathogens


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