Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with intermediate risk cytogenetics (IRcyto) comprises a variety of biological entities with distinct mutational landscapes that translate into differential risks of relapse and prognosis. Optimal postremission therapy choice in this heterogeneous patient population is currently unsettled. In the current study, we compared outcomes in IRcyto AML recipients of autologous (autoSCT) (n = 312) or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) (n = 279) in first complete remission (CR1). Molecular risk was defined based on CEBPA, NPM1, and FLT3-ITD mutational status, per European LeukemiaNet 2017 criteria. Five-year overall survival (OS) in patients with favorable molecular risk (FRmol) was 62% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50-72) after autoSCT and 66% (95% CI, 41-83) after matched sibling donor (MSD) alloSCT (P = .68). For patients of intermediate molecular risk (IRmol), MSD alloSCT was associated with lower cumulative incidence of relapse (P < .001), as well as with increased nonrelapse mortality (P = .01), as compared to autoSCT. The 5-year OS was 47% (95% CI, 34-58) after autoSCT and 70% (95% CI, 59-79) after MSD alloSCT (P = .02) in this patient subgroup. In a propensity-score matched IRmol subcohort (n = 106), MSD alloSCT was associated with superior leukemia-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.33, P = .004) and increased OS in patients alive 1 year after transplantation (HR 0.20, P = .004). These results indicate that, within IRcyto AML in CR1, autoSCT may be a valid option for FRmol patients, whereas MSD alloSCT should be the preferred postremission strategy in IRmol patients.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Allogeneic stem cell transplant
- Autologous stem cell transplant