The role of decentralized assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) for risk stratification in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains largely unknown, and so it does which methodological aspects are critical to empower the evaluation of MRD with prognostic significance, particularly if using multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). We analyzed 1076 AML patients in first remission after induction chemotherapy, in whom MRD was evaluated by MFC in local laboratories of 60 Hospitals participating in the PETHEMA registry. We also conducted a survey on technical aspects of MRD testing to determine the impact of methodological heterogeneity in the prognostic value of MFC. Our results confirmed the recommended cutoff of 0.1% to discriminate patients with significantly different cumulative-incidence of relapse (-CIR- HR:0.71, P < 0.001) and overall survival (HR: 0.73, P = 0.001), but uncovered the limited prognostic value of MFC based MRD in multivariate and recursive partitioning models including other clinical, genetic and treatment related factors. Virtually all aspects related with methodological, interpretation, and reporting of MFC based MRD testing impacted in its ability to discriminate patients with different CIR. Thus, this study demonstrated that “real-world” assessment of MRD using MFC is prognostic in patients at first remission, and urges greater standardization for improved risk-stratification toward clinical decisions in AML.